Materials with 1bn times the strength of steel?

https://www.msn.com/en-gb/news/techandscience/nuclear-pasta-universes-strongest-material-discovered/ar-BBNA8kT

https://phys.org/news/2018-09-simulation-nuclear-pasta-billion-harder.html

Because of the immense gravity of neutron stars, the outer layers freeze solid to form a crust that surrounds a liquid core. Between the outer layer and the inner core quark–gluon plasma (or quark soup) nuclear pasta forms at matter densities of 10^14 g/cm^3. Protons and neutrons are thought to spatially separate as nuclear attraction and Colombic repulsion forces compete (a type of Spinodal decomposition) and end up forming long cylindrical shapes or flat planes. These have become known as “spaghetti” and “lasagne”—or nuclear pasta.

In a recent PRL paper, it was claimed that this nuclear pasta has a stength of 10 billion times that of steel.
https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.132701

The paper states in abstract a strength of 10^30 ergs/cm^3. 1 erg / cm^3 is equivalent to 0.1 J/m^3. 0.1 J/m^3 is the same as 0.1 Pa. Therefore 10^30 ergs/cm^3 is 10^29 Pa.

Comparing this to the 5.5 GPa stength of Steel Scifer wires… ultimate shear strength = 0.5 * UTS = 2.25 GPa.
(A value for maximum theoretical Shear strength would be 12 GPa I believe).

So now …. 10^29 Pa / 2.25^9 Pa = 3.0 x 10^19 * steel strength = 30.25 Quintillion times the strength of steel.

Tell me what I’m missing here… maybe the paper converted to specific strength over exaggerate their value? What’s the density of nuclear pasta?

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mtex examples with data

I have been doing a bit of play using mtex to look at some EBSD data which I previous exported to .ctf format. mtex is an open source (GPL) software, which written for the commercial matlab software. The mtex package comes along with several examples and tutorials which can be read within matlab or over the http-internet-web.

Example scripts for using mtex are also available to download from the recently published paper “On Three-Dimensional Misorientation Spaces” by Krakow etal. published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 473, 2017.

Scripts and EBSD data for the case studies in the paper are available here:

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263510

Scripts for producing other figures in the paper (explaining orientation relations etc.) are available from the mtex website here (along with other examples):

https://mtex-toolbox.github.io/publications.html

Screenshot from 2018-06-11 19-56-55

Control of texture in materials using mtex /matlab at Sandvik

Dr Claes Olsson from Sandvik AB’s Materials Technology division explained at the Matlab expo 2016 how Sandvik has used the MTEX toolbox for analyzing and modeling crystallographic textures by means of pole figure and EBSD data. The software has been integrated into the work of the Materials Technology division allowing an auditable methodology for quality control, meeting standards to supply to their nuclear customers (e.g. in case of rolling zircalloy with controlled texture). Initial example of use was with pole figure data collected with a diffractometer, but they have also used the software to analyse EBSD data.
Screenshot from 2018-06-07 19-42-12
A video of the presentation can be seen here:
Screenshot from 2018-06-07 19-39-32
Slides can be found here:
Mtex is a free toolbox released under the GNU GPL 2, which works inside the commercially available matlab environment.

Top Ranking Journals in Metallurgy (google Journal Impact Factors)

https://bainite.wordpress.com/2015/07/21/metallurgy-journal-impact-factors/

https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=en&vq=eng_metallurgy

Publication h5-index h5-median
1. Materials Science and Engineering: A 56
2. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 38
3. Intermetallics 36
4. Materials Characterization 30
5. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 30
6. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 28
7. ISIJ International 28
8. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 27
9. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 27
10. Materials Science and Technology 24
11. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 24
12. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining 23
13. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 20
14. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International 19
15. Steel Research International 19
16. Metals and Materials International 18
17. Metalurgija 17
18. Oxidation of Metals 16
19. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials 16
20. Journal of Materials Research and Technology 15

British library Oral History Collection

Harry Bhadeshia fans shouldn’t overlook this important resource:

Harry Bhadeshia – Oral history of British science

Harry Bhadeshia British Library

Harry Bhadeshia British Library

Properties of a nanostructured bainitic steel

In some recent work, we produced a nanostructured steel was produced using a clean steel-making technique. Hoping that applying VIM-VAR processing would achieve better mechanical properties by reducing tramp elements, like sulphur and phosphorous. Resulting in less problems of embrittlement by these elements and by manganese sulphide inclusions, etc.

No doubt these steels have impressive combinations of properties. We had the chance to measure many different mechanical properties of the same batch of steel. Only complicated by the fact that we were trying to develop heat treatments to improve the properties at the same time.

These results have been published in Materials Science and Technology, here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02670836.2016.1271522

The maximum strength of the material recorded was 2.2 GPa at yield, with an ultimate tensile strength of 2.5 GPa, accompanied by a Charpy impact energy of 5 J, achieved by heat treatment to refine the prior austenite grain size from 145 to 20 µm. This increased the strength by 40% and the Charpy V-notch energy more than doubled. In terms of resistance of the hardness to tempering, the behaviour observed was similar to previous alloys. Despite reducing the hardness and strength, tempering was observed to reduce the plane-strain fracture toughness.

Royal Societies Inspiring Scientists

The Royal Society put together some student resources on Inspiring British scientists with minority ethnic heritage. My Supervisor Harry Bhadeshia is twice as inspiring as the rest, as you can see from the Royal Societies Tweet:

Royal Soc Inspiring Scientists

Royal Soc Inspiring Scientists

Link to resources