Atom positions in steel

I was able to make some data sets available this year from work published in 2004 and in 2017 showing how atoms arrange themselves in nanostructured steel (Super Bainite).

There are a couple of motivations for making the data sets available. Firstly it is good practice and makes it possible for others to analyse the data to check reproducibility of my work, and there is also possibility to extract further information. It also serves as a back-up for the data sets by putting them on internet, one of the best back-ups available… 🙂

Another is that, at the time of conducting these experiments a frustration of mine was that there was no [simple] way to view the positions without access to commercial software, for me, that was once I had left the facility I visited to undertake part of the work. Hopefully the sharing of atom position data will become more standard procedure in future, with the increasing sophistication of high-level computing languages and expansion of open software. This may allow new developments in reconstruction of volumes, analysis of the atom positions, and education of users; benefiting the atom probe field.

The data were collected by using a pulsed electric field concentrated on the tip of a needle made by electropolishing the steel sample. By pulsing the voltage both the time-of-flight and the position the projected atom hits a detector screen can be recorded. This can then be mapped back to the sample volume, allowing measurement of the composition of the steel with better than nanometre resolution. The technique is called 3D atom probe (3DAP) tomographic atom probe (TAP) or atom probe tomography (APT). This technique is related to field ion microscopy.

The volume studied include volumes from various crystal structures (BCC bainitic ferrite, FCC thin-film austenite, carbides such as Fe3C cementite) in the particular steel I was studying (nanostructured carbide-free bainite — see papers for details).

Data can be found here:
https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/265717
https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/265720

The papers describing the data can be found here:

https://www.phase-trans.msm.cam.ac.uk/2004/atom.probe.bainite.html

https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263230

I’m glad to make these data sets available, and hope they will continue to be available in the future from the Cambridge repository website.

At the time I did the experiments, only commercial software was available to view the atom probe data such as IVAS ivas, but today I believe it should be possible to view the atom positions using software such as 3depict 3d epict.

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Linus Pauling site

Linus Pauling and the Nature of the Chemical Bond

Utilizing over 2,500 manuscript pages, nearly 100 photographs, and more than four hours of audio and video, this website tells the story of a cornerstone achievement of twentieth century science…

Kobe Steel executives take a bow

Kobe steel humbled over data fabrication scandal that started in Copper and Aluminium section which has been a growing sector of the company.

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201710090031.html

Problem reportedly about copper and aluminium durability levels according to the worlds press, concern spreads that it points to problems in company culture, and other products may be effected.

Kobe steel press releases in English can be found here: http://www.kobelco.co.jp/english/releases

The revelations comes soon after announcement of joint venture to set up aluminium manufacturing plant in South Korea.

Tools for visualisation of citation networks – looking at Bainite literature

VOSviewer and CiteNetExplorer are a couple of tools for analysing and visualising patterns in scientific literature. These tools are freely available to use and distribute java programs (working on Windows, MacOS and Linux for example) written by researchers at Leiden University.

To get going, first we do a search on web of science, then download data as a list of “Full Record and Cited References” as a Tab-delimited file, in blocks of 500 entries (manually select to download record 1-500, 501-1000, etc. Then these files can be opened in both VOSviewer and CiteNetExplorer. For example I conducted a search on the topic “Bainite”.

Now we have beautiful graphs that identify key papers in a field.

Criteria for weighting the links in the network, or grouping the publications, and how to represent the results can all be changed depending on the data being explored.

Employers of non-EU workers in UK

Read Rare Books online

http://rarebookroom.org/

Read pages of books from Shakespeare, Benjamin Franklin, Redouté, Galileo, Copernicus, Louis Renard, Kepler, Einstein, etc, etc.

 

Robert Hooke’s Micrographia from 1665 is one example of what can be browsed.

Example content from Rarebooks.com. A page showing the head of a fly from Robert Hookes Micrographia.

Example content from Rarebooks.com. A page showing the head of a fly from Robert Hookes Micrographia.

Top Ranking Journals in Metallurgy (google Journal Impact Factors)

https://bainite.wordpress.com/2015/07/21/metallurgy-journal-impact-factors/

https://scholar.google.co.uk/citations?view_op=top_venues&hl=en&vq=eng_metallurgy

Publication h5-index h5-median
1. Materials Science and Engineering: A 56
2. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 38
3. Intermetallics 36
4. Materials Characterization 30
5. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 30
6. International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials 28
7. ISIJ International 28
8. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 27
9. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 27
10. Materials Science and Technology 24
11. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology 24
12. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining 23
13. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 20
14. Journal of Iron and Steel Research, International 19
15. Steel Research International 19
16. Metals and Materials International 18
17. Metalurgija 17
18. Oxidation of Metals 16
19. International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy, and Materials 16
20. Journal of Materials Research and Technology 15