Relativity accessible?

Who best to explain theory of relativity? Now that we can measure gravitational waves, it looks like this theory has a look in?

Any how, I stumbled on this book by Albert Einstein which is in public domain, last time I checked it was available as html, text and something called “MS Word Document” — whatever that means. The book “Relativity : the Special and General Theory by Albert Einstein” is the famous paper which explained all this clever stuff.

Just checked back there and now you can download a TeX file from project Gutenberg. This is revolutionary, now you can produce a beautifully typeset document to peruse.

The TeX file seems to compile fine, I used pdflatex and got a few warnings, there where warnings about illegal character on saving the file, hope you can avoid these problems.

Anyway great news for Einstein fans, read his theory explained in his own words, or words he endorsed.

Download TeX here:

Or you can probably find pdf for free, or pay 90p for kindle version. 🙂

Yummy Iron

This phase diagram is making me hungry for some reason… Fer Fondu sounds yummy.

Fer Fondu

Fer Fondu

Taken from International Association for Testing Materials, VIth Congress, New York, 1912, “The Nomenclature of the microstructure substances and structures of steel and cast iron”.

Papers Download Statistics from Elsevier: Effect of tempering upon the tensile properties of a nanostructured steel

Elsevier provides some statistics for my one of my papers.

The paper is also available here – on the phase transformations website.

Downloads from Elsevier is about 1/3 from China and 1/9 th from the UK.


Top countries Pct
China 34%
UK 11%
Germany 6%
USA 6%
Turkey 5%


Paper Download Statistics

Paper Download Statistics


Running on Straight Rails

Boffins in Austria have been studying railway tracks to better understand the residual stresses that result from straightening them during processing.

Roller straightening is the final step in production of the rails, after hot rolling is performed at around 1000&degree;C cooling (presumably with water spray) results in curvature of the rails. This varies depending on the rail geometry and cooling conditions.

Results from finite element modelling, and measurement of stresses using the contour method and neutron diffraction were compared. The model matches the trends of the measurements in the vertical plane (possibly the mode important since it has the largest residual stresses). In the paper comparison of neutron results for triaxial stresses shows there are residual stresses in the plane perpendicular to the vertical through the rail tool, although these were not predicted by the FEM model.

Residual Stresses

Residual Stresses along vertical symmetry axis


  2. R. Kaiser, M. Stefenelli, T. Hatzenbichler, T. Antretter, J. Keckes and B. Buchmayr (2014) “Experimental characterization and modelling of triaxial residual stresses in straightened railway rails,” The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, 1-9 DOI: 10.1177/0309324714560040

Laser engineering to produce hydrophobic surfaces

TheEngineer has an article covering work by scientists at the University of Rochester who have achieved the surface modification of metals, by treatment with lasers, to make the surfaces hydrophilic or super-hydrophobic. In their study they used titanium, brass and platinum.

Bouncing water drops

Bouncing water drops from modified metal surface

Original paper:

Modelling Climate Successfully by Time Travel?

I saw on website new that Monckton et al have published a paper “Why models run hot: results from an irreducibly simple climate model” about climate modelling, and why previous models ‘run hot’.

Monkton etal Climate Model

Monckton et al Climate Model

As seen in their figure 6, their model matches very well with the observations. One strange thing to me, is that they have observations of the temperature change until the year 2050, although currently the start of 2015. Does this mean that Monckton et al are able to get information from the future, maybe they have a time machine? It seems more likely that they made a serious mistake in the presentation of their results. Since this paper should have been subject to much scrutiny before publishing (given the controversy of the subject) it seems probable to me that the figure purposefully misleads the reader.

As can reported at skeptical science, in 2012, Christopher Monckton has been using this graph for some time. It seems that the error is to compare data from two different periods of time. The graph presented in the recent paper is less carefully presented than the version used in a 2012 presentation. If we look at the old graph we can understand that the data is not from the future, it’s actually the previous trend.

Credibility gap

Monckton’s credibility gap

They also suggest a parallel with another UK time travelling Lord, could it be that Christopher Monckton is  a Time Lord?



All Royal Society Publications freely available this week

Fill your boots.

Available from Monday 20th October 2014 till Sunday 26 October 2014.

Royal Society Publishing -- 1 week free access for all.

Royal Society Publishing — 1 week free access for all.

Please make paper recommendations in the comments!