Hadfield vs Hatfield

I always get these two Sheffield related names mixed up.

Hadfield Hatfield
Sir Robert Abbott, Baronet Hadfield Dr. William Hatfield
Inventor/ manufacturer of high Mn
steels known as Hadfield Steel
Inventor in 1924 of 18/8 stainless steel, and 321 stainless steel (18Cr-8-Ni+Ti).
1858-1940, Born in Sheffield, Died in Surrey 1882-1943, Born in Sheffield.
Son of Robert Hadfield
Wrote over 200 Papers Authored many papers.
Made Hadfields foundry one of largest in World Appointed director of Brown-Firth Research Laboratories (succeeding Harry Brearley)
Hadfield steel can also refer to some high silicon steels  Stainless Steels and also some high temperature alloys were developed by Hatfield (12Ni-5Mn-4Cr which has high thermal expansion coefficient and 5Ni-4Cr-3Mo which has strength at high temperature).
Obituary Obituary

Economic cost of nuclear power

About 1 year before the Fukushima disaster President Obama announced $8 bn dollars in loan guarantees to the Southern Company, for the construction of two new nuclear reactor piles at the Vogtle site, each having a capacity of 1117 MW. The expected construction cost of the plants is $8.87 billion.

The Southern Company provide the following information about costs.

Economic Impacts
* Up to $14 billion of investment in the state of Georgia
* Approximately 5,000 on-site jobs during the peak of construction
* 800 high-paying jobs for the life of the plant
* Tax dollars to the local communities and the state over the expected 60-year life

The Westinghouse AP1000 is design is based on the AP600, the design is boasted to use existing technology and simplified design to cut down on the number of safety valves, pumps and piping, control cable and ‘seismic building volume’. Two plants of similar design are currently under construction in China, and planned at 6 other sites in the USA.


Of course a full cost would also have to include any price premium or guaranteed market for electricity generated from the plant.

Vogtle site:
Vogtle site under construction

Benefits to financing during construction:

* The cost of the plant will be phased-in over 7 years, versus included in rates over only two years. (Approx. 1.3 percent/yr over 7 years for total of 9 percent, versus approximately 12 percent total over two years.)
* Customers will avoid paying $300 million in interest charges, thereby saving money over the life of the plant.
* The in-service cost of the plant will be reduced by nearly $2 billion (30 percent).
* Total rate increases required to cover the cost of the plant when it goes into service will be nearly 3 percent lower.
* Preserving utility credit ratings reduces costs for other projects and helps keep customer rates low.

Is this an interesting use of compound interest? if we increase by 1.3% every year we can claim the total increase is 9%. The real increase is (1.013)^7 = 1.0946 = 9.46%. 1.3 x 7 = 9.1 so pretty close between these two numbers. Why would we have to increase tax to 12% over 2 years then. We can only make such large numbers by borrowing all the money to build the plant before we start building which seems a strange way to do business.

It’s also strange that electricity bills have to increase to pay for the nuclear plant to be built when they also use nuclear power, I guess coal power is pretty cheap in comparison.

UK gold reserves fail to meet gold standard

“This is not about purity, this is about physical appearance,” Says a spokesman for the Bank of England. Mervyn King was not risking making the statement himself.

It has been discovered that some of the bars of gold held in the bank of England have been poorly made and have started to show cracks. The gold showing signs of deterioration was originally imported from America in the 1930s and 1940s falls below the proper LGD(London Goods Delivery) standard as specified by the London Bullion Market Association. The Bars are reported to have the proper assay markings added at the time of manufacture to assure the purity, however the paper work is unavailable.

Gold Ingots
Picture from Wikipedia article about Gold

The bank currently holds a reserve of 320 tonne on behalf of the treasury and they say this could temporarily reduce the value, the gold may have to be re-refined. The gold held by the Bank of England is an insurance policy in case of turmoil in the world’s money markets and the reserve is currently worth around £4 billion. However much of the reserves have been halved in recent years according to government policy lead by Gordon Brown to diversify the holdings.

Revelations about its physical deterioration were secured by the trade journal Metal Bulletin. It’s suggested that pure gold should not crack or exhibit fissures and that therefore the gold may not be 100% pure.

Peter Ryan, an analyst at the consultant Gold Field Mineral Services, said: “I would guess that it would only be a small proportion that doesn’t conform to standards and it would only be an issue if they needed to sell the gold. Some of this gold was acquired 30 or 40 years ago and standards do vary, but it is not difficult to fix.” The gold price has been soaring recently as investors seek a hedge against the falling dollar and inflation worries. Strong demand from India, the biggest gold-consuming country in the world, has also boosted prices. There, gold jewellery, ingots and coins are a favourite wedding and festival gift.

Quoted from Times online article covering this story; All that glisters may not be gold.

Corus Symposium

On 11th-12th April 2007 I attented the first annual Corus-Academia Symposium, which was held at a previous residence of mine, Tapton Hall in Sheffield.

It was really good to see this event being organised by Corus, bringing together many of the students they sponsor and research staff from academia and industrial researchers. I would recommend any company in a similar situation to organise a similar event – I think it succeeded in benefiting both the students and the company. The conference was held over two days, starting at 11 am and ending at 2 pm. This gave time to travel to and from Sheffield without too much trouble, or atleast it wasn’t too difficult to get there and back on the train from Cambridge.

There were 18 oral presentations were made in 4 sessions and around 30 posters presented.

Lecture at Corus Syposium
Click to see more photographs

The poster I presented at the symposium was based on my phd work, titled Bulk Nanocrystalline Steel. During presentation of the best poster award, the first thing that one of the organisers said is that the poster should have the name of the author, and sponsors, so I don’t think they were impressed by my attempt to comunicate only the important information. Probably to keep this style I should have had another small sign with my name and photograph on it, however my name was in the progamme, and Corus should know who in their company is working on what projects. One thing that did upset me is that I thought I would be able to stand next too my poster to talk to anyone who was interested during the poster sessions, this was overly optimistic, and made difficult by the layout of the poster stands. I did manage to talk to a few people about my work, I think the poster atleast succeeded in being a good starting point for a discusison.

Conference Programme

Wednesday IIth April
11:00 Registration desk open Tea / coffee Loading of oral presentations and erection of posters
12:00 POSTER SESSION in dining hall with buffet lunch
Chair Prof. Rob Boom
13:00 SESSION 1
• Welcome / Corus Prof. Rob Boom
• Welcome/Sheffield Prof Mark Rainforth
• Strain induced precipitation in multipass rolling Vishwa Nagarajan
• Internal stresses in steels Ellie Clarke
• Development of bimodal grain sizes in TMCR Debalay Chakrabarty

• Microstructure & toughness of high strength, hot rolled strip steels Eric Maina
• An application of Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques in the modelling of strain ageing
Alex Gator
• Damage evolution in Free Cutting Steels Alistair Foster
15:30 Tea & Coffee, conservatory
16:00 SESSION 2 Chair Dr Peter Morris
• The non-contact ultrasonic inspection of hot, moving steel Iain Baillie
• Ultrasonic measurement of liquid steel cleanness Alex Currie
• Acoustic diagnostics in a hot strip mill David Murray
• What non-contact sensors can offer to the steel industry in terms of material characterisation Dr Claire Davis
17:30 Close
19:00 Bar
19:30 Dinner

Thursday I2th April
09:00 SESSIONS Chair Prof Andy Howe
• Overview of Corus research at NIMR Dr Rene Duursma
• Rapid testing of organic coating degradation using FTIR Jen Wray
• Flame-assisted CVD Paul Youngson
• Fine-scale mapping for environmental analysis Kevin Jackson
10:30 POSTER SESSION in dining hall with tea/coffee
11:20 SESSION 4 Chair Dr Tony Jones
• A hot strip mill work roll temperature model Daniel White
• The performance on non-sharp defects in service Anthony Horn
• Characterisation of connection mechanisms within road safety barriers Andrew Bayton
• Behaviour of composite structures during the cooling phase of a fire Charlotte Roben
• Symposium wrap-up Dr Tony Jones
13:00 Buffet Lunch & prizes
14:00 Close / Posters down

POSTERS: Wednesday 11*, 12-13:00, and Thursday 12th, 10:30-11:20
Iain Baillie, Corus/Warwick: The non-contact ultrasonic inspection of hot, moving steel
Arghya Deys, Sheffield: The Interactions of Zirconia Particles and other Inclusions of Liquid Steel with Zirconia Based SEN Walls
Tim Evans, Birmingham: Concentrations of PCBs and Chiral signatures of matched air and soil samples on a global scale
Xinjiang Hao, Birmingham: Multi-frequency electromagnetic sensors for the measurement of microstructure
Andrey Kostryzhev, B’ham: Role of precipitates on Bauschinger effect in large diameter
steel pipe processing
Huan Li, Birmingham: Modelling of mechanical property and damage recovery for a
pipe steel in annealing process
Ed Marsden, Corus/Sheffield: Thermal neutron detectors for security applications
Glyn Martin, Swansea: Factors influencing the long term durability of coated products in worldwide climates
Mayorkinos Papaelios, B’ham: Rail research at the University of Birmingham
Mathew Peet, Cambridge: Tempering of Low temperature Bainite
John Pillai, Greenwich: Results from plant trails to evaluate on-line wall friction tester
Mark Potter, Warwick Ultrasonic texture measurement of strip (UTMOST)
Guixiang Qin Microstructural evolution analysis on an E911 steel using the Leicester: EBSD method
Jody Turner, Sheffield Metallurgical sub-structure development in multipass rolling

Others expected :-
Yoseph Tefasse, Cranfield: Rolling system design optimisation using thermal and soft computing technique
Bin Kamal, Sheffield: Monitoring Airborne Pollution using Tree Bark –
Dmitry Borisoglebsky, C’field: Incorporation of cost modelling into process simulation
Natalie Kaniuka, Salford: Atmospheric pressure plasma CVD of SiON
Richard Wood, Cardiff: Processing routes of electrical steels
Ben Ward, Sheffield Hallam: Organic coatings based on polymer-clay nano-composites
Chris Taylor, Swansea: Analysis of run-off from coated organic steels
Stephen Essex, Warwick: Ultrasonic characterisation of texture in aluminium sheet in correlation with electron back-scatter diffraction
Yichao Fan, Warwick: Crack depth measurements using non-contact ultrasound
Ed Marsden, Corus/Sheffield: Large Area High Efficiency Neutron Detector
Stephen Turner, Cardiff: Grain-to-Grain Field and Loss Variation in Electrical Steel
Christopher Vardon, Cardiff: Domains and microstructures in electrical steel

Multicomponent carbides trap Hydrogen

A new paper by Shingo Yamasaki and Harry Bhadeshia published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society (A 462 (2006) 2315-2330) shows that by controlling the lattice parameters of the carbide and the matrix via the steel composition and heat treatment it is possible to enhance hydrogen trapping. In Fe-C-Mo-V the cohency of the M4C3 with the matrix is shown to influence the ability to trap hydrogen, this effects the resistance of the steel to corrosion and reduction of mechanical properties.

Once again I was called into action to perform an interview of Harry, which you can find along with the paper. Interviewing seems to be getting easier, but I wish I’d remembered to mention Shingo’s name in the introduction. Also in future I have to find a way to track people down and do the interviews over the phone, otherwise every interview will be with myself and Harry 🙂

You can also find Shingo’s Phd thesis and presentation slides on hydrogen trapping on the phase transformations website.

This paper has been selected as the materials science and metallurgy department’s paper of the month for June 2006.