Peter J. Lee at the University of Florida had made great progress in the field of Niobium – Columbium interactions, and made a phase diagram available. Although Columbium and Niobium share similar physical
and chemical properties, Niobium has recently been preferred by academic researchers and industry throughout much of the world, but in the USA industry has traditionally preferred to use Columbium.
This study of the Cb-Nb phase diagram indicates that the two metals can be combined to produce a
comparable alloy. The properties of the Cb-Nb alloy are independent of composition and therefore the most economic combination of Nb and Cb may be used depending on price and availability leading to cost savings.
These results can be found in the never article “The Columbium-Niobium Phase Diagram” not published in the Journal of Irrefutable Results V1.0, N1, April 1st, 1991 and 2006.