Final Preparation techniques for TEM

Material Technique Details Reference
Fe-Si, S.S. EW 60% H3PO4, 40% H2SO4, 9V Tomlinson 1958
Many Steels E 96% CH3COOH, 4% H2O + 200 g/l CrO3. Stir at 65°C for 1 hr. Cool use at » 10 V. Rinse in alcohol, dip in acetic acid before replacing in electrolyte. Glenn and Raley 1963
Fe, mild steel EH 88% CH3COOH, 12% H2O + 170 g/l CrO3, 20 V Briers et al. 1964
S.S. EH 5% HClO4, 95% CH3COOH + 20 g/l CrO3 + 10 g/l NiCl2, 50-80V. Stir. Briers et al. 1964
Many Steels EIJ 100 g Na2CrO4 per 500 ml CH3COOH, 30-35 V Shoone and Fischione 1966, Glenn and Schoone 1964
Many Steels E H3PO4 + excess CrO3, stand 1 day before using, Low Voltage. Keown 1970
Fe and S.S. Disapol Disapol A2 Phillips and Hugo 1960
Fe-33 Ni EB 5% HClO4, 95% CH3COOH, 40V Krauss 1963
Fe, mild steel Figure of 8 10% HClO4, 90% CH3COOH Brandon and Nutting 1959a and b
Mild Steel EP 95% CH3COOH, 5% H2O + 400 g/l CrO3, 1-3V Ginn and Brown 1965
Bainitic or martensitic Steels EP 95% (CH3CO)2O, 5% HClO4 Irani and Jones 1966
S.S. EJ Dimple: 48% H3PO4, 32% H2SO4, 20% H2O. Final: 54% H3PO4, 36% H2SO4, 10% C2H5OH or H2O Rowcliffe 1966
Fe-Ti EIJ Dimple: 95% CH3COOH, 5% HClO4, 12 V, 20°C. Final: 60% CH3OH, 34% n-butanol, 6% HClO4, 15 V, -50°C Rack and Cohen 1970
Fe-17 Cr-10 Ni EP 70% C2H5OH, 20% Glycerol 10% HClO4, -10°C, 5-20 V Raty et al. 1966
Fe-Si E Single crystals. 80% H3PO4, 13% CrO3, 7% H2O, 8V Gemperle 1963
Fe-Si High purity material, Disapol AC-1 (AC-2 and D-” also suitable) Walter and Koch 1962
Fe-Ni EB 6% H2SO4, 94% H3PO4 + 100 g/l CrO3, 60°C, 0.33 A/cm2 Hammond and Ansell 1964
Fe-Mn E 70% H3PO4, 30% H2O + 300 g/l CrO3, 65°C. 6V Roberts 1964
Fe U Diamond knife Phillips 1967
Magnetic iron oxides Ion 6kV, argon ions Schmidt et al. 1970
Fe3O4 CJ 80% H2PO4, 20% H2O, 120°C Wicks 1968

B Bollmann technique

C Chemical Polish

E Electropolish

H PTFE holder

I Immersed (of jets)

Ion Ion Beam thinning

J Jet technique

U Ultramicrotomy

W Window technique

Acetic acid CH3COOH

Acetic anhydride (CH3CO)2O

Cadmium hydroxide Cd(OH)2

Chromium trioxide CrO3

Ethanol C2H5OH

Hydrochloric acid HCl

Hydrofluoric acid HF

Hydrogen peroxide H2O2

Methanol CH3OH

Nitric acid HNO3

Ortho-phosphoric acid H3PO4

Perchloric acid HClO4

Potassium cyanide KCN

Potassium ferrocyanide K4Fe(CN)6

Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl

Sodium hydroxide NaOH

Sulphuric acid H2SO4

Water H2O

Data from ‘Practical Methods in Electron microscopy, Vol 1, P. J. Goodhew, Ed: Audrey M. Glauert, 1972, North-Holland/ American Elsevier.

Table and Chemical names generated from Latex using ‘tth’ command.

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